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Yusufzai (Pashtun tribe)



The Yūsufzai (also YoussofzayYousefzaiYousafzaiEsapzeyYousufi, or Yūsufi) (Pashto: يوسفزی,Persian and Urdu: یوسف زئی) is one of the largest Pashtun (Afghans) tribes. The majority of the Yusufzai tribe reside in parts of Western Afghanistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas near the Afghan-Pakistan border.

They are the predominant population in the districts of Konar, Ningarhar, Mardan District, Dir, Swat,Malakand, Swabi, Buner, Shangla, Haripur District [Khalabat Town Ship and Tarbela] and in Mansehra and Battagram. There is also a Yusufzai clan of Dehwar tribe in the Mastung district of Balochistan who speak Persian with some mixture of Birahvi words.

The descendants of Yusuf inhabit Konar, Jalalabad, Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Malakand Swabi and Mardan. The begotten tribe of Yusufzai's are the Utmanzai having 3 major subdivions Alizai, Akazai and Kanazai, of Tarbela (now live in Khalabat Town Ship, District Haripur and Nawanshehr District Abbottabad).

Most Yusafzai speak the northern variant of "Pukhtu" with the hard "kh" replacing the softer "sh" of southern Afghan or Pashtun tribes

YOUSAFZAI sub tribes and families


yousafzais, the greate trible in pushtun has a greate role over ther world. it has a greate name in history.

mandah can be classified into the following sets:-1) uthman khel(usman khel)2) khazar3) rajjar


Sub-Tribes



  • The uthman khel can be further classified into1) 
  • Abakhel:- they live in the areas of kunda, zeda, hund, and shah mansoor.2) 
  • Umerkhel:- they iive in the areas of swabi, kala, dara and maneri.the rohillas of india were from this family of mandarh. najib ud daula belonged to the village of swabi.3) 
  • mir ahmed khel:- they live in the areas of marghuz, tandhkoi and salim khan.4) 
  • bahzad khel:- they live in khalabat areas.5) 
  • khudukhel:- they live in pinjtar, dagai, totalay, baja and bam khel.in the same way rajjar can be classified as1) 
  • manizai:- they live in dagay, turlanday, tarakai, purmulay and adina.2) 
  • malakzai:- they live in yar hussain, sherdara, and yaqubi.3) 
  • akozai:- they live in dhobian, sarra cheena and ismaila.4) 
  • khizarzai:- they live in shewa, kalu khan and sherghund.5) 
  • mamoodzai:- they live in nawey kaley, sheikh janan, asota and naranji
  •  Baboo Khel . 
  • Taju Khel . Swati 
  • Basi khail (Tor gar,Battagram) . 
  • Musa Khel . 
  • Moghal Khel(Bannu) 
  • Amazai 
  • Ahmed khel 
  • Akazai 
  • Azikhel 
  • Babozai 
  • Shamozai 
  • Chagharzai 
  • Hassanzai 
  • Isazai 
  • Kamalzai 
  • Niamatkhel 
  • Maddakhel 
  • Malizai 
  • Maturizai 
  • Ranizai 
  • Razarh 
  • Utmanzai 
  • Rohilla 
  • Jalozai izai
  • Nikpikhel
  • Suleman Khel 
  • Mahabat Khel 
  • Meta Khel 
  • AkhunKhail (Oghi, battagram) . 
  • Bara Khel . 
  • Bhabi Khel (Mardan, Swabi & Juna Garh,India) . 
  • Malizai (DIR)
  • Painda Khel
  • Sultan Khel 
  • Usa Khel 
  • Nasir din Khel (Malizai is Also in Aghanistan) 
  • Malizai: The Malizai division of the Yusufzai occupy the lower portion of the Buner valley. 
  • kakazai bara khan khel (mandanr yousafzai) 
  • hamza khel (mandanr yousafzai) 
  • sadi khel
  • mandanr yousafzai 
  • Hafeez Khel (Nowshera) 
  • Nokhaar Asadkhel
  • Sadukhel( Ghourghushti, Attock)


  • Mardan is inhabited largely by two sub-tribes of mandanh, Kamalzai and Amazai. Kamalzais are divided into two main branches, Masharanzai, with chief town Toru and Kashranzai, with chief town Mardan. Amazais are divided into two main branches, the Doulat zai and Ismial zai.

    The Yūsufzai are one of the largest Pashtun tribes.The Yousafzai take their name from one Yousaf, of the tribe of Khakhkhe. The word Yousaf means 'Joseph' in Arabic and Zai means 'sons of' in Pashto. Yousafzai literaly means 'Sons of Joseph'. This Yousaf is a more recent ancestor. As per their oral history, as is common to all tribes that call themselves Afghan, they are the descendents of King Saul, who was from the tribe of Benjamin, of the nation of Israel. The majority of the Yusufzai tribe reside in the North West Frontier Province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with some tribal Yususfzais settled along the Afghan border. Yusufzais are the predominant population in the districts of Swabi, Swat, Mardan, Malakand, Buner and Shangla. Still other Yusufzai colonies can be found in the inner city of Sialkot and Lahore where they have established themselves as landowners arriving in the 13th century. They speak the northern variant of "Pukhtu" with the hard "kh" replacing the softer "sh" of southern Pashtun tribes.Their manner of speaking Pashto is universally recognised as being the purest among all Pashtun tribes.(North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Mardan, or Hoti-Mardan, is a town 30 miles north of Peshawar, in northwestern Pakistan. ... ... Swabi lies between the river Indus and river Kabul, in the north west frontier (NWFP) of Pakistan. ...) 

    In their migration eastward, arrived at Kabul when Mirza Ulugh Beg was governor. He succeeded his father, Shah Rukh, who was a son of Timur (Taimur-e-Lang), in 1446 A.D. In the time of Babur, who first came to Kabul in 1504 A.D. the whole of the Peshawar district had already been colonized by different Afghan tribes e.g Swatis and Dilazaks; and, on his second visit, fourteen years later, he found the Yusufzais had spread well into Swat. The settlement of the Yusufzais in their present limits, on these data, must, therefore, have been and subsequent to the dates above-mentioned.

    An account of the Yusufzai migration from Kandahar, their wanderings, and final settlement in their present limits, is their take over on the lands from the Afghan tribes Dilazaks and Swatis, whom, with much difficulty, they had been forced to leave the land, across the Indus to the Hazara mountains (now known as Hazara Division) where lies the beautiful city of Abbottabad and Mansehra (where Swatis predominated with their surname Swati, reflecting their link to the region) after a single but desperate and decisive battle fought on the plains between the villages of Gadar and Langarkot. Babur himself took part to subdue the tribes against Yususfzais, matchlocks had been used for the first time against the Jahangiri sultan Mir Haider Ali Gebri of Bajour. Bibi Mubarka had married to King Babur, and had also been titled as "Afghani Agacha".

    History


    Tribal Symbolism on Coat of Arms- Crown: The Yousufzais have always been considered among the Pathans as elders. This is because they descend from Hazrat Yousuf A.S. (Prophet Joseph). and his Bani Israel lineage from the Ancient Royal House of Israel. The flag of the Yusufzai's show the tribes history and lineage- The White circle: Unified, unbroken & Islam 4 stars: 4 sons of Qis/Kesh/Qais Abdur Rashid Lion with Flag: The Lion of Judah/The Bravery of the Yousufzai Pathans & the emblem of many Pathan Kingdoms Olive Tree: Descent from the House of Israel/Bani Israel Black Background: The world in troment, pain & ignorance, showing the messianic dedication of Pathans that spread Islam.

    Demographics


    Three sections of the tribe, the Hassanzai, Akazai and Chagharzai, inhabit the west slopes of the Black Mountain, and the Yusufzai country stretches to the Utman Khel territory. The population demographics of Yusufzais is unknown but there are more than 3 million Pashtu speaking Yusufzais. The main districts of Yousafzais are Mardan, Swat,Shangla, Malakand, Swabi, Haripur, Battagram, Mansehra and Dargai. Yousafzai lives in Multan who speak Urdu and Siraeki.

    History of BACTRAIN till Yousafzai(300 BC - 1500 AD)


    The BACTRAIN Greek king invaded the region in 185 BC. MENANDER was the most successful of their king between 155-130BC. The Bactrain was followed by SEYTHIAN also called Sakas; they were the central Asian nomadic tribe who was dislodged by YEUHI-CHI tribes from the shore of Aral Sea. The sythian were over thrown by PARTHIAN. Parthians were the Iranian people who brought Greek culture and western artistic culture in to the Gandhara. Ghandara school of Arts is developed during this period.
    The Parthian rule was dismantled by KUSHANS in 60 AD. The kushan was a branch of the yeuhi-chi nomadic tribe. This period was the most significant rule of the history of the area. They not only ruled but also expanded the culture of this region beyond its boundaries. The western and eastern touches are combining in the image of Buddha. The touches are combining in the image of Buddha. The famousking kanishka built most of the religious monuments, who was a stronger preacher of this faith. He transformed Ghandhara in to a holy land.

    WHITE HUNS (HEPHTALITA) a fierce barbarian from central Asia overthrows the kushans Dynasty. The Buddhists were forced to far-plung northern areas. While the end of Huns rule cause destruction and killing of monks, some escaped and took shelter in the mountains. The fall of white Huns calls TURK SHAHI and after them HINDU SHAHI occupied the area.

    In the eleventh century SULTAN MAHMOOD GHAZNAVI defeated the last ruler of Hindu shahi known as Raja Gira under the command of khushal khan (pir khushhal Baba) at Udigram. The Ghaznavied were accompanied by Dilazaks pathan and swati pathan (both are pathan tribes) than after mohmood settle down pathan tribes while pushing the Aryan race natives in to the mountains. After hundreds of year the name of Ghandhara was replaced. The population was slowly converted in to Muslim by the efforts of Muslim kings and sufia where it presents 99.6% of the population representing Muslims strong hold.

    The Gahaznavied were replaced by GURIED and continued by other Muslim rulers and different tribes from time to time. But what is important the arrival of YOUSAFZAI PAKHTUNS in swat I 1525 under the leadership of Malik Ahmad and Sheikh Mali with a possession to Dilazaks and the swati pathan. Sultan Owas was their king in Manglawer as their capital. After a tug of war between the yousafzai and swatis, The swatis ere ultimately expelled to Hazara in the Block Mountains. The yousafzai divided the land among the clans and became the landowners of the Valley.

    Yousafzai 

    The Yousafzai is the largest ethnic Afghan/Pashtun tribe and alsothe largest in NWFP of Pakistan. as "The Sons of Joseph": Yousaf zai = son of. Their spokenlangagues is Pashto. The Yousefzai are considered to speak the purest form of Pashto. Clans include Isa (Jesus), Moosa (Moses),Malizai, Akozai, Chagharzai, Orba, Madakhel and Bazikhel. 

    Yousafzai once used to live in Kabul but they migrated to the Plains nowmainly in Pakistan. 
    Yousafzai captured these lands by force and defeated theresidents of these regions(SWAT, MALAKAND, MARDAN, SWABI, MANSEHRA).In the Past they had spent most of their time in fighting with Mughals and Khattaks, Khattaks were traitors amongst pukhtoons who fought for Mughals to get some reward or a high position in their Army, but YOUSAFZAI gave ASYLUM and shelter to KHUSHAL KHANKHATTAK when Mughal wanted to kill him. are the most educated and politically aware people amongst Pukhtoons.

    The majority of The Yousafzai reside in Pakistan, in the areasof mardan malakand and Swabi.

    Swabi lies between the river Indus and river Kabul, in the northwest frontier (NWFP) ofPakistan. Majority of the Yousafzai clan of Pathans have been living here for centuries.The History and culture of the Swabi is very rich. The latehistorian Roshan Khan Baba fromthis region wrote a book entitled the "History of Yousafzai tribe".A well known Captain of the Pakistan army Karnal Sher Khan belonged to this region. He was involved in the Kargil War and was killed in action. He was awarded Pakistan's highest Military Honour the Nishan-e-Haider. People in Swabi are well educated.Today manypeople from this regionare found in different parts of the world,but mostly in UK. They have unique characteristics of modern life but within Islam. The People of Swabi are famous for theirhospitality and a "romantic" people, they are fair in complexion with rugged expressionsas most Mountain People in Pakistan appear. 

    Swabi is a huge market for the tobacco while the other cash cropsare vegetables, wheat,sugar cane and maze. Apart from these all sorts of fruits are foundhere. 
    The famous Tarbela Dam and electricity power house is located in Swabi. Swabi is also the house to one of the most prestigious institutes of the country namely Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology in the town of Topi.

    History of Yousafzai Pukhtoon Brave Fighters

    The Pathans, who reside in the tribal territory on our border, are essentially a democratic race, and though from time to time a Khan or Mullah has arisen amongst them who has acquired such influence that he has come to be regarded locally more or less as a King, it is doubtful whether an individual has ever before succeeded in establishing over any part of their country such absolute power as that now enjoyed by the present Ruler of Swat, Miangul Gul Shahzada Sir Abdul Wadood, K.B.E. Though his State occupies only a very small portion of the world's surface, its creation is such a unique achievement that a brief description of it may not be considered out of place in the Society's Journal.The Swat valley is rich in historical and archaeological associations. It was the scene of one of Alexander the Greats' campaigns and the home of an extensive Buddhist civilization. Almost every spur is crowned with the solid remains of ancient dwellings, while here and there in the side-valleys one suddenly encounters the majestic pile of some old Stupa gradually crumbling away and covered with grass and bushes. This aspect of the country has however been ably and meticulously described by Sir Aurel Stein in his paper which was published in the Society's Journal for November and December 1927, and in his book 'On Alexander's Track to the Indus,' and I shall not therefore deal further with it in the present paper.During the last few years, by the kindness of the Ruler, I have visited many parts of Swat State by car or on foot, while through the courtesy of the Royal Air Force any parts of the State which I have not visited on the ground I have been able to see from the air. I have also had many long talks with the Ruler and those about him and have learnt direct from them all the recent history of the State and the details of its administration.The Yusufzai are one of the largest of the Pathan tribes on the North - West Frontier of our Indian Empire. They are divided into two main branches, the descendants of Yusuf and the descendants of his nephew Mandanr. The latter are mostly settled in the Mardan Sub-Division of the Peshawar District in British territory, and we shall only be concerned in this paper with a few of them who occupy a fringe of the hilly country on the northern border of the Swabi Tehsil. The descendants of Yusuf are divided into four branches: the Akozai, who occupy the Panjkora and Swat valleys and some very mountainous country between the Swat valley and the Indus; the Malizai and Iliaszai, who live in Buner and some adjacent country towards the Indus; and the Isazai, who are mostly found on the left bank of the Indus but possess a small slice of country on the right bank of that river. All these sections are divided into numerous sub-sections of which I need only mention the powerful Malizai, a sub-section of the Akozai, who occupy practically the whole of the main Panjkora valley and must not be confused with the Malizai of Buner.The Yusufzai organization-like that of most other Pathan tribes-is based on the theory that all members of the tribe have equal rights while those who are not members have none. Generally speaking, only a member of the tribe can own land, and any person who ceases to own land loses his tribal rights. Further, in the case of the Yusufzai, most, if not all, of the cultivable land belonging to the tribe was originally liable to redistribution per capita at fixed periods of years. This practice has mostly fallen into desuetude but is still in force in some parts across the border. The Yusufzai however differ from most other Pathan tribes on the border in the special position held by their Khans. These are presumably descendants of the men who led the tribe when it first conquered its present territory and received special recognition in consequence. They hold a special allotment of land over and above their ordinary tribal share; it is not liable to periodical redistribution, and on the death of a Khan is normally not split up amongst his heirs but passes undivided to his successor as Khan. The most important of these Khans for several generations has been that of Dir.Possessing a large individual estate and exercising a certain amount of control over the whole of the Malizai in the Panjkora valley, the Khan of Dir has often extended his authority over neighboring tracts and in particular over the country occupied by other Akozai sections on the right bank of the Swat river. Since the British Government entered into an agreement with the ruling Khan, Muhammad Sharif Khan, in 1895, in connection with the operations which were undertaken for the relief of Chitral, the position of the Khan of Dir has been greatly strengthened and he is now recognized as a hereditary Nawab and the head of a State much of which he rules with more or less autocratic powers. I am not dealing with Dir State in this paper, but it is necessary to refer to it briefly, because it was the effort of the right bank Swat tribes to throw off the yoke of the Nawab of Dir which gave to Miangul Gul Shahzada the opportunity of establishing his own position and founding a State more extensive and far more absolute than that of Dir.Before proceeding further I will explain the origins of this remarkable man. Some time towards the end of the eighteenth century an ordinary Safi tribesman left his own country on the farther side of Bajaur and settled at a hamlet called Jabrai in Upper Swat. About 1794 a son was born to him called Abdul Ghafur, who as a boy tended flocks and cattle, and when he began to grow up migrated, as many of the Swatis do, to the Peshawar District as a talib-ul-ilm, or seeker after religious knowledge. He studied at the feet of various Mullahs and eventually settled down as a hermit in a small village near the Indus, where he stayed for twelve years and acquired a great reputation for sanctity.Local politics at length forced him to migrate, and he wandered about for many years from place to place, until about 1845, when he returned to Swat and settled down at the village of Saidu. Here he remained till his death in 1877. His reputation as a saint rapidly increased and he soon became the leading figure in the valley, being famous all along the frontier as the Akhund of Swat. It was under his lead that the tribes took the field against us during the Ambela campaign of 1863, but apart from this his attitude to the British Government was not generally one of hostility, and his chief anxiety appears to have been to maintain the independence of his beloved Swat. He never aspired to temporal power, but led a simple religious life at his mosque in Saidu, where he was visited by countless pilgrims.At this time and until the recent rise to power of Miangul Gul Shahzada, there was no leading hereditary Khan or Chief in Swat or Buner or any of the adjacent Yusufzai territory to the east. There were numerous petty Khans who were always fighting each other and a ruinous sort of party system prevailed. Sometimes one party would be in power and sometimes the other, and the party out of power usually had to abandon its villages and seek refuge elsewhere until it had gained sufficient strength to oust its rivals. These parties were guided by no political principle but purely by self-interest or ancient hereditary attachments. The result of this system was that the whole country was normally in a state of anarchy and chaos.The Akhund on his death left two sons, Abdul Hanan and Abdul Khaliq, who with their descendants received the appellation of Miangul. Abdul Hanan was ambitious of temporal power and played a prominent part in local party politics, but without achieving his object. Abdul Khaliq led the life of a religious recluse. Abdul Hanan died about 1887 and Abdul Khaliq in 1892. Abdul Hanan left two sons, Said Badshah and Mir Badshah, and Abdul Khaliq two sons, Gul Shahzada and Shirin. All were still minors when Abdul Khaliq died in 1892. They soon began intriguing against each other, and the parties in Swat ranged themselves behind rival Mianguls. Said Badshah was murdered by his brother and cousins in 1903 and Mir Badshah was shot dead by Gul Shahzada in 1907. The elder branch of the family thus became extinct, but the two brothers Gul Shahzada and Shirin continued to intrigue against each other till 1915, when the appearance of a rival in the field forced them to unite.At this time the Swat tribes were engaged in one of their periodical attempts to free the right bank of their valley from the yoke of the Nawab of Dir, and in order to bring about the union necessary to achieve this object, they determined to take unto themselves a king. Once in the time of the Akhund, when they feared a British invasion, they had a king for a few years, and it was his grandson they now called in, Abdul Jabar Shah, a Syed from Sathana in Amb territory on the right bank of the Indus. The Mianguls at once began to work against him, and allied themselves with the Nawab of Dir; they were however defeated and for a time turned out of Saidu. They were soon back again, and it was not long before the Swatis grew tired of Abdul Jabar Shah, who had not proved successful as a leader in the field. In September 1917 they quietly escorted him out of their country and invited the Mianguls to take his place as joint rulers. The Mianguls readily accepted the offer and were not slow in consolidating their position and taking the field against the Nawab of Dir. It was perhaps providential for the future peace of the valley that the younger Miangul, Shirin, was killed in a fight with the Nawab's forces in 1918, and that Gul Shahzada was left in sole and undisputed authority.The Nawab of Dir continued his efforts to re-conquer his revolted provinces on the right bank of the Swat river, but in August 1919 he suffered a crushing defeat in the Harnawai valley, as a result of which Gul Shahzada was able to eradicate the last remnants of his authority over the right-bank Swat tribes and even to occupy Adinzai, which had long been regarded as an integral part of Dir State, and through which a section of the Chitral road runs. Fighting continued in Adinzai till 1922, when Government was forced to intervene and the Nawab of Dir and Gul Shahzada were induced to sign an agreement whereby Adinzai was handed back to the Nawab, and each ruler undertook to refrain from interference in the other's territory. A limit was thus set to the expansion of the new State towards the west. North of the Swat river it marched with Dir State, the boundary from north to south being the main Swat-Panjkora watershed as far as Adinzai, and then a subsidiary watershed running down to the Swat river between Adinzai and Shamzai; while south of the Swat river the Landakai and Mora ridges separated it from Ranizai, a tract which was taken under the protection of the British Government when the Malakand was occupied in 1895. Adinzai, Shamzai, and Ranizai are names which denote originally certain sub-sections of the Akozai tribe, but are also applied geographically, as is often the case, to the tracts allotted to the same sub-sections in the original distribution of Yusufzai land.During his struggles with the Nawab of Dir, Gul Shahzada had frequently to face the opposition of recalcitrant Khans in the Swat valley itself, but by 1922 he had completely established his authority over all the Swat Pathan tribesmen. At the northern end of the valley however is a large block of extremely mountainous country occupied by non-Pathan races who are loosely known as Kohistanis. These are probably the descendants of the people who were forced northwards into the mountains when the Yusufzai occupied the lower valleys. They boast an Arab origin but speak a variety of "Dardic" languages. The majority in the Swat valley employ a dialect which is known as Torwali, but the inhabitants of one side-valley use Khilliwal, the language of the Indus Kohistan, while there is at least one village in the extreme north of the main valley which speaks Khowar, the language of Chitral. The Swat Kohistanis had helped some of the Khans of the lower part of the valley in their efforts to curb the Miangul's increasing power. The Miangul therefore, as soon as he was free from anxiety on the Dir side, at once turned his attention to them. Although they are a wild and independent people they possess no cohesion, and he had little difficulty in occupying the whole of their country as far north as Peshmal. Above this at the extreme northern end of the valley is a tract containing valuable forests which is usually referred to as Kalam, though properly speaking this is only the name of a single village. His Highness the Mehtar of Chitral had long laid claim to this tract, and when the Miangul showed signs of occupying it His Highness first sent a peaceful mission to Saidu and then began to mobilize his forces. Government was again forced to intervene, and the Miangul agreed not to interfere in Kalam provided the Mehtar of Chitral and Nawab of Dir similarly refrained from interference. Kalam has thus been left as a sort of no-man's land in a maze of snow-capped peaks between the three States.Having dealt with the west and the north the Miangul now turned his attention to the south. Across the mountains which bound the Swat valley in this direction lies Buner, a wide open tract of country drained by the Barandu river. At this time Buner was more or less controlled by a party of Khans with their headquarters at Daggar. As elsewhere in Yusufzai country there were two factions, and sometimes one set of Khans was in power and sometimes another. Early in 1922, while he was still fighting with the Nawab of Dir in Adinzai, the Miangul had been seriously threatened by a tribal force from Buner under the ex-King of Swat, Abdul Jabar Shah. In April 1923 therefore he dispatched his Wazir with a large force and occupied the whole of Buner and the Chamla valley beyond it without a single shot being fired. The method pursued by the Miangul when he had made up his mind to occupy new territory was to make friends with one of the local factions. He would then enter the country in support of that faction, and having half the country already on his side, his forces were usually sufficient completely to overcome the opposite faction. In this case however the Miangul was not left in undisputed possession of his newly acquired territory. The Nawab of Amb, a small State on the Indus, was determined to curb the Miangul's rapidly growing power and sent a force into Chamla. Some quite severe fighting ensued, but one night the Nawab of Amb's forces suddenly melted away without having suffered any serious reverse. The next year the Miangul advanced still farther and occupied the tracts known as Khudu Khel and Sori Amazai, and began to interfere in Gadun country. Meanwhile the Nawab of Amb had asked Government to intervene, and as it was considered undesirable that fighting should continue between the two rulers, a neutral zone was fixed which included Gadun and Isazai country, and they were both forbidden to interfere in it. By the conquest of Buner, Chamla, and Khudu Khel the Miangul had extended his dominions on the south right up to the border of British administered territory, while to the south-east his further advance was prevented by the neutral zone described above.North of the eastern portion of Buner and east of the Swat valley lies a stretch of extremely mountainous country intersected by deep ravines running down to the Indus. Most of this is occupied by Akozai tribes who have their headquarters on the left bank of the Swat river. With the occupation of Buner a small portion of this country, called Makhozai, also passed under the Wali's rule and he constructed a fort at a place called Choga. Here he was almost immediately attacked by the tribesmen of the adjoining tracts. He proceeded to beat off the attack, and before the end of the year had occupied the whole of the country down to the Indus, which he was forbidden by Government to cross.There was now only one direction in which further advance was possible; the north-east, where lies the wild and little-known Indus Kohistan. Here again assistance afforded to rebel Khans gave the Miangul an excuse for action. In 1925 he occupied the Kormang valley, and in 1926 he advanced farther and established posts at Lahor and Besham. In doing this however he encountered unexpectedly heavy opposition and many casualties were sustained. In the winter of 1926-z7 the Kohistanis made vigorous efforts to expel his forces from Lahor; they were repulsed after heavy fighting, but no attempt has since been made to penetrate farther into the Indus Kohistan. Beyond Lahor is a great tract of extremely mountainous country comprising the Dubair Seo and Kandia valleys and containing rich forests. It is believed that no European has ever visited it. The inhabitants live in village communities, acknowledge no ruler, and are said to devote most of their time to their local feuds. They speak a tongue which is known as Khilliwal.In May 1926 Government formally recognized Miangul Gul Shahzada as Wali or Ruler of Swat, while he in turn undertook to respect the various boundaries prescribed for his State. In 1933 his eldest son Jahanzeb was similarly acknowledged as his Wali-e-Ahad or Heir Apparent.I will now endeavour to give a brief geographical description of the new State, and will then say something about the Wali's system of administration and the great progress which the country has made under his beneficent rule.The boundaries of the State have already been described. In shape it is roughly a rectangle with the Khudu Khel country as an excrescence at the south-eastern corner. Its length from north to south measures about 80 miles, and its width from west to east about 60 miles. Its population is estimated at about 300,000, and, except in the Kohistani country in the extreme north, consists of Yusufzai Pathans with a large admixture of Syeds, Mians, and various menial classes, together with a few Hindus.For purposes of administration the State is divided into four provinces: (I) Swat proper; (2) Buner; (3) the Mandanr country consisting of Chamla, Sori Amazai, and Khudu Khel; (4) the country lying between the eastern watershed of the Swat river and the Indus. Though these divisions are partly racial in character they form a satisfactory basis for the geographical description of the country.The Swat valley is one of the beauty spots of northern India, rivalling even Kashmir. Fed from numerous sources amongst the snows of the Kohistan the Swat river cleaves its way through forest-clad slopes down to Paiti, where the valley begins to broaden out until it attains a width in places of 3 or 4 miles. The river also grows wider and splits here and there into numerous channels enclosing fertile islands. It is difficult to say whether the valley is more beautiful in the early autumn when the full river winds its way through vivid rice-fields and the hill-slopes are green after the summer rains, or at the beginning of spring, when the more slender stream laces the valley with the deepest blue, and the young wheat and barley crops are full of pink-and-white tulips and blue lilies, and the mustard-fields light up the skirt of the hills with a blaze of yellow, while every turn presents a new vista of snow-clad peaks. The side valleys too are full of charm. Those on the left bank are mostly short and steep with brooks that hurtle down through a tangle of scrub, past narrow terraced fields and occasional clumps of lofty chinars, while those on the right bank are larger and more open. Two of the latter call for special mention. The first of these is the Harnawai valley, which is upwards of 20 miles long and is the home of two important sections, the Shamzai and Sebujni. It is usually referred to by the inhabitants of the main valley as Bar (Upper) Swat. The Harnawai stream has its sources in mountains 13,000 feet high and supplies sufficient water for extensive cultivation. The second valley, which is known as Nikpi Khel from the section which inhabits it, is an open expanse of undulating country drained by several converging watercourses. Cultivation is largely dependent upon rain, and the people in consequence are not so prone to malaria and are of better physique than the rest of the inhabitants of the Swat valley.In the Kohistan I have only been on the ground as far as Baranial, but in May 1933 I was privileged to fly over the top of the highest peak, Mankial Tsukai, which is 18,750 feet. The Wali was a passenger in the same flight. The whole country is a maze of peaks and ridges intersected by deep forest-clad valleys.There are no large towns in Swat. The biggest centre of population is Mingora, where there is a bazaar which has recently been widened and rebuilt by the Wali. The capital of the State is 2 miles away at Saidu, where the Wali resides and where the tomb of the famous Akhund is situated. A few miles above Saidu, in a little valley running down from Mount Ilam, lies Maina, which the Wali has made his summer residence. The only local industry is the weaving of blankets and the country is almost entirely dependent on agriculture except in the Kohistan, where the forests are an important source of income. No mineral wealth has been discovered. The average annual rainfall in the lower part of the valley is probably between 20 and 30 inches, about half of which falls between December and May and the rest during the monsoon from July to September. There is practically no monsoon rainfall in the Kohistan, but the abundant snow which falls in the winter feeds the Swat river during the summer months. Wheat is the principal spring crop of the valley, while rice and maize are grown during the hot weather. There is sufficient grazing on the hills for considerable flocks and herds, and ghee or clarified butter of very good quality is produced, while wool and hides are also exported.All the lower hills within easy reach of the river have long been denuded of trees, and even in the Kohistan the more accessible forests have been ruined within the past few generations by indiscriminate felling. With the Wali's consent the surviving forests are now controlled by the Forest Department of the North-West Frontier Province, and it is hoped that it will eventually be possible to reforest some of the denuded areas.The Swat valley where it forms part of the State is shut in both on the north and south by high mountain ranges, and is only easily accessible from the Malakand Agency lower down in the same valley. To the north the range that forms the boundary with Dir State nowhere drops below about 8000 feet, while the Karakar Pass, the lowest point in the southern range which separates Swat from Buner, is 4384 feet. The latter range contains the peak of Ilam (9222 feet), a well-wooded cone which forms a very conspicuous feature of the landscape as viewed from the plains of the Peshawar District. On its summit is a Hindu shrine which is visited by numerous pilgrims of that faith at certain seasons of the year, and, as Sir Aurel Stein has shown, the mountain was famous as a sacred site in ancient Buddhist times.Buner I have viewed from the air and from the tops of the mountains that enclose it on the north and south. It is a wide open plain lying between the range of hills which borders the Peshawar plain on the north and the range which has just been described. Its average elevation is about 2500 feet, and it is studded with sudden peaks and ridges. It has an arid aspect and most of the cultivated land is un-irrigated, the chief crop being barley. It slopes towards the east and is drained by the Barandu river direct into the Indus. Three considerable valleys debouch into the plain from the north-Gadaizai, Gokand, and Chagharzai, the first and last of these names being tribal and the second topographical. In Gadaizai is the shrine of Pir Baba, the most famous and frequented place of pilgrimage on the North-West Frontier. As is the case throughout the rest of the State the tribesmen live in village communities, and there are no large centres of population. I traversed most of the Mandanr country in 1929 when I climbed Mahaban (7379 feet) from Gadun country and descended by the Nagrai valley (Sori Amazai) on the farther side to Chamla, returning to British territory by the Ambela Pass at the head of the Chamla valley. Chamla consists of one long valley averaging a mile or two in width and drained by the Chamla stream which flows into the Barandu a few miles above the latter stream's junction with the Indus. It is more fertile than Buner, and derives its name from the fact that after its acquisition by the Mandanr tribe it was divided up into "chams" or plots, one of which was allotted to each Mandanr sub-section except the Amazai, who were separately provided for in Sori and Pitao Amazai. Sori Amazai, meaning Amazai of the Shade, is a narrow well-watered valley running down from the northern slopes of Mahaban and forms part of the Wali's dominions. The best-known place in it is Malka, which was once the stronghold of the Hindustani Fanatics and was destroyed by the tribesmen in the presence of British officers after the Ambela Campaign of 1863. Pitao Amazai, or Amazai of the Sunshine, lies east of Mahaban and is independent, being part of the neutral zone interposed between the Wali and the Nawab of Amb. Mahaban, which means Great Forest, is a well-wooded ridge and is the highest point of the range which skirts the northern edge of the Peshawar plain. Until Sir Aure1 Stein visited it in 1904 it was often erroneously identified with Arrian's Aornos. In the foothill country running up to Mahaban from the south-west lies Khudu Khel. This tract extends right down into the plain nearly as far as Swabi itself, and geographically forms part of the Swabi Tehsil. The Sikhs however never succeeded in subduing the Khudu Khel and their country was therefore not included in the Peshawar District when the British took over from the Sikhs. It remained independent until absorbed by the Wali in 1923, and now forms a sort of excrescence to his State, being the only part of it which lies south of the divide between the Peshawar plain and the Barandu drainage area. The country consists of narrow cultivable valleys among the barren foothills and a strip of plain which is irrigated from the Upper Swat Canal.I have only seen the country lying east of the Swat-Indus divide from the air. It consists of a tangled mass of mountains intersected by three deep and narrow valleys. The mountains rise to heights of 8000 or 9??0 feet and fall away in great sweeps and precipices to tortuous ravines, down which silver streams wind their way towards the Indus. This river has here forged a broad course through successive mountain ranges and flows with a strong but not tumultuous stream at an altitude of less than 2000 feet. The slopes of the hills wherever they are not too steep or rocky are terraced for cultivation up to high altitudes, and there is not much forest. There are only a few large villages and most of the population live in scattered dwellings up and down the mountain slopes. The most southerly of the three valleys in this area is drained by a stream which is called on the map the Itai river, though I have never heard this name actually used. This stream has two forks forming two separate tracts called Makhozai and Puran, which have been made by the Wali into one Tehsil, though they are tribally distinct. The lower part of the valley forms a separate Tehsil with its headquarters at Martung. The central valley is called Chakesar and forms one Tehsil. The northern valley has two forks at its western end-Ghorband and Lilauni-and a large tributary farther down on its left bank called Kana. These form three separate Tehsils. The main stream that drains the valley is known as the Sain Khwar. There is one other Tehsil with its headquarters at Besham on the Indus; this consists of the corner of the Indus Kohistan which forms part of the Wali's dominions.As far as I know, only one European has visited any part of this country on the ground, and that is Sir Aurel Stein, who identified the height of Pirsar lying just north of Chakesar with the famous stronghold of Aornos, the capture of which by Alexander the Great is described in so much detail by Arrian. Sir Aurel Stein has given a description of this expedition in the paper to which I have already referred.Swat proper is controlled directly by the central authorities who reside at the State's capital Saidu. It is divided up into eleven Tehsils, nine of which bear the names of various Akozai sub-sections and coincide with their tribal holdings in the valley. Of the other two Churarai comprises a few villages occupied by Syeds and a portion of the Kohistan, while the administrative headquarters of the rest of the Kohistan is at Baranial. Buner consists of five Tehsils based on tribal sub-divisions and is administered by a Hakim or Governor residing at Gagra. In Mandanr the three tracts I have described Chamla, Sori Amazai, and Khudu Khel-each forms a separate Tehsil, and the Governor resides at Totali in the last-named tract. In the country between the Swat valley and the Indus there are, as already noted, seven Tehsils formed on geographical rather than tribal lines. Six of these are under a Governor who resides at Chakesar, while the seventh, Kana, is for special reasons controlled directly by the central authorities at Saidu. Governors of districts administer the Tehsils in which they reside. Other Tehsils are under Tehsildars responsible either to the Governor or directly to the central State authorities, as the case may be.The whole State is ruled autocratically by the Wali, who is assisted by his eldest son, the Wali-e-Ahad, his Wazir, and his Sipah Salar or Commander in-Chief. The Wali-e-Ahad is chiefly responsible for financial matters, the Wazir for the political and judicial administration, and the Sipah Salar for the military organization. The Wali is illiterate but decides every matter of importance himself verbally over the telephone. The revenue of the State is derived chiefly from Ushar, or the tax on grain and other products, and from tolls on imports and exports. The ushar is mostly recovered in kind, and State employees are mostly paid in kind. The average annual revenue works out in cash at about twelve lakhs of rupees, say ?9?,000, a year. The State finances are carefully handled and the expenditure is not allowed to exceed the income. Justice is administered on the lines of tribal custom. Whenever the Wali occupied a new tract he called upon the local elders to put on record their riwaj or tribal custom, and this custom is normally followed in all cases of purely local importance. Offences against the State or crimes affecting the public welfare, such as highway robbery, are generally settled by the Wali himself on their merits. Before the Wali had consolidated his position every tribesman was armed and was under an obligation to turn out for his ruler or tribe in a time of emergency. As soon as he felt himself strong enough the Wali disarmed all his subjects except at one or two points in his State where there is a danger of attack from outside. The more serviceable of the arms he immediately reissued to selected men in each village as State property, thus creating an army of his own to take the place of the old tribal lashkar, which lacked all organization and was liable to be fickle in its allegiance. The army is paid in kind and is divided into two separate forces. One mans the numerous forts, with which the countryside is studded, and may be regarded as a sort of constabulary, while the members of the other live in their villages ready to take the field when necessity arises.The progress made by the country under the Wali's strong but beneficent rule is marvellous. Peace and order reign even in the most remote and mountainous regions and trade flourishes. At Saidu there is a large school with about five hundred boys, a well-attended hospital, and a veterinary dispensary. There are also schools in many of the outlying districts. Fine residences have been erected at Saidu for the Wali and his eldest son, and several of the leading Khans and Maliks in the villages have built for themselves large tin-roofed bungalows on more or less modern lines.Amongst other reforms the Wali has abolished the Wesh or periodical redistribution of land except in the case of the rice-lands in the Swat valley, where constant changes in the stream afford some justification for the system. Formerly in the case of one at least of the Swat tribes whole villages used to change hands every few years.Perhaps the most notable development is in the matter of roads and telephones. The Wali has fully realized the importance of both of these for tribal control. In Swat there are now about ISO miles of motor-able roads. These run along both banks of the main river as far north as Churarai, and up several of the side valleys. In Buner and Chamla too excellent roads have been constructed between the Tehsil headquarters, but these districts will not be accessible by car until the road over the Karakar Pass has been completed. Much money has already been expended on this road, but in the present financial stringency the Wali cannot find sufficient funds to complete it. In the Indus tracts the country is so mountainous that the expense of making motor-able roads would be prohibitive; the Tehsil headquarters however have all been connected by good riding paths. In addition to this the whole of the State is covered by an elaborate telephone system, so that the Wali can at any moment ring up his officials in the remotest parts of his dominions.How great is the achievement of one man in thus carving out for himself a State amongst the wild frontier hills only those who know the nature of the tribes and the character of their country will be able to appreciate. Miangul Gul Shahzada Sir Abdul Wadood, K.B.E., Ruler of Swat, is now in his fifty-first year and is still as strong in body as he is in will. He starts his day at dawn with a constitutional, usually a 1000-foot climb, and is extremely frugal in his habits. He is a first-class shot and spends most of his spare time on shikar. He is the most genial of hosts and unsparing in his hospitality, and loves nothing better than sharing his sport with his friends. The Wali-e-Ahad is polished and capable and should in due course prove a worthy successor to his father. Let us hope that the State which Miangul Gul Shahzada has founded will continue to prosper and remain for very many years to come a haven of peace on our troubled border. Note: I Where I use the word "Swati" I mean an inhabitant of the Swat valley. The name is also applied to a tribe which once had its home in Swat, but now lives on the left bank of the Indus. 

    YUSAFZAI, a large group of Pathan tribes, originally immigrants from the neighbourhood of Kandahar, which includes those of the Black Mountain, the Bunerwals, the Swatis, the people of Dir and the Panjkora valley, and also, the inhabitants of the Yusafzai plain in Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Three sections of the tribe, the Hassanzais, Akazais and Chagarzais, inhabit. the W. slopes of the Black Mountain, and the Yusafzai country stretches thence to the Utman Khel territory. The trans-border Yusafzais are estimated at 65,000 fighting men, giving a total population of about 250,000. The Yusafzais are said to be descended from one Mandai, who had two sons, Umar and Yusaf. Umar died, leaving one son, Mandan; from Mandan and Yusaf come the two primary divisions of the Yusafzais,, which are split into numerous subdivisions, including the Isazais, Malizais, Akazais, Ranizais and Utmanzais.
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    Pakhtoon Origin:

    The ten "lost" tribes consisted of the tribes of Reuben, Simon, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Ephraim, and half the tribe of Manasseh. They constituted the northern kingdom of Israel that broke away from the kingdom of Judah after the death of King Solomon. In 722 BCE, the kingdom of Israel fell to the Assyrians under King Shalmaneser, who deported many Israelites to Halah and Habor by the river Gozan and to the cities of the Medes (II Kings 17:6; 18:11). Not all Israelites, however, were deported (see II Chr. 35:17-19).
    Although it was generally believed that the Israelites who were "carried away into Assyria" (II Kings 17:3) assimilated, a passage in I Chronicles 5:26 suggests that the lost tribes survive "unto this day." This belief was kept alive by prophetic utterances that God would gather in the "remnants of Israel" from the four corners of the globe (Isa. 11:12). Ezekiel (37:15-28) spoke of his vision of the union of Israel and Judah, who would together partake of the blessings of Messianic times (Zech. 8:13).

    Belief in the continued existence of the "lost" ten tribes is maintained in the talmudic and midrashic literature. They were generally thought to reside on the other side of the legendary Sambatyon river, whose waters run regularly, though fiercely, during the week but rest on the Sabbath. Rabbis made attempts to identify the localities to which the ten tribes had been carried away. In the Jerusalem Talmud it is stated that only a third of the exiles live beyond the Sambatyon river, but all will eventually return (Sanh. 10:6, 29c). One dissenter from this view was R. Akiva, who said that "the ten tribes shall not return again" (Sanh. 10:3).
    Particularly during appearances of false Messiah, though intermittently until today, reports have been received of the "discovery" of lost tribes. The ninth-century traveler Eldad ha-Dani claimed to be a member of the tribe of Dan. He is generally thought to have come from Ethiopia, though some scholars have associated him with Jews as far afield as China. In the second half of the 12th century, the Spanish traveler Benjamin of Tudela described the four tribes of Dan, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali as dwelling near the river Gozan. He also mentioned the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh as living in Khaibar in Yemen. Similar references are found in the letters of the legendary Christian figure Prester John. Reference to Prester John, the Sambatyon river, and the lost tribes can be found in a 1488 letter by R. Obadiah di Bertinoro. In the 16th century, David Reuveni, purportedly of the tribe of Reuben, claimed to be the descendant of King Solomon and the brother of Joseph, the king of the descendants of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh, who were living in the desert of Khaibar (Habor) in Arabia. He claimed he was sent on a mission to Rome by the king of the "lost" Israelites in order to hasten the era of the redemption.

    In 1644, Aaron Levi de Montezinos reported to Manasseh Ben Israel in Amsterdam that the Indians in South America were of the lost tribes. Ben Israel used this, and reports of other Jews dispersed the world over, as an argument to Oliver Cromwell to allow Jews to live in England on the grounds that the dispersal of Jews to all countries would bring the Messianic return of Jews to the Holy Land. He disseminated the idea that the Twelve Tribes will be joined together in the Messianic age in his book Hope of Israel (1650).

    In the 19th century, many Jewish emissaries left Erets Israel for remote parts in order to search for the "lost" tribes. Noteworthy among these are Jacob Sapir (1822-1888), who visited Yemen and India and reported their dispersion in those countries, and Benjamin II (1818-1864), who emulated the medieval traveler Benjamin of Tudela.

    Today, legends of descent from the "lost" ten tribes abound. Jewish communities of Kurdish, Bokharan, and Indian (the Bené Israel) origin claim their forefathers were exiled from the Kingdom of Israel, while the Israel Chief Rabbinate has taken the position that the Jews of Ethiopia come from the tribe of Dan. In addition, a wide range of non-Jewish tribes and groups claim descent from the Israelites, ranging from sections of the Nigerian Yoruba tribe to the "Manipur Jews" from northeast India, who claim to belong to the tribe of Manasseh. Fifteen million Pathans spread over Afghanistan and Pakistan (and Kashmir) are divided into sub-tribal groupings with names like Reubeni (Reuben), Efridar (Ephraim), and Ashuri (Asher), leading to the suggestion that they come from the lost tribes. The British Israelites derive the word "British" from the Hebrew "berit-ish" (man of the covenant).

    Ten tribes that were relocated to Assyria after the conquest of Israel in 72 B.C. Although their ultimate fate is unknown, the tribes have been identified with various peoples of Arabia and other areas of the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Japan, and England.


  • Early Christian theologians in New England often referred to the native peoples they encountered as the Lost Tribes.


  • Twelve Tribes
    According to the Hebrew Bible, Jacob (who was later named Israel; Gen 35:10) had 12 sons and at least one daughter (Dinah) by two wives and two concubines. The twelve sons fathered the twelve Tribes of Israel.


    • When the land of Israel was apportioned among the tribes in the days of Joshua, the Tribe of Levi, being chosen as priests, did not receive land (Joshua 13:33, (14:3). However, the tribe of Levi were given cities. Six cities were given to the tribe as refuge cities for all men of Israel which were to be controlled by the Levites. Three of these cities were located on each side of the Jordan River. In addition, 42 other cities (and their respective open spaces) totaling 48 cities were given to the Tribe of Levi. (Numbers 35)
    • On the other hand, Jacob elevated the descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh (the two sons of Joseph by his Egyptian wife Asenath) (Genesis 41:50) to the status of full tribes in their own right, replacing the Tribe of Joseph (Joshua 14:4). Each received its own land and had its own encampment during the 40 years of wandering in the desert.
    Thus, the two divisions of the tribes are:
    Traditional division:
    1. Reuben
    2. Simeon
    3. Levi
    4. Judah
    5. Issachar
    6. Zebulun
    7. Dan
    8. Naphtali
    9. Gad
    10. Asher
    11. Joseph
    12. Benjamin
    Division according to apportionment of land in Israel:
    1. Reuben
    2. Simeon
    3. Judah
    4. Issachar
    5. Zebulun
    6. Dan
    7. Naphtali
    8. Gad
    9. Asher
    10. Benjamin
    11. Ephraim (son of Joseph)
    12. Manasseh (son of Joseph)
    • Levi (no territorial allotment, except a number of cities located within the territories of the other tribes)
    Historical background
    The Kingdom of Israel (or Northern Kingdom) was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also called the Kingdom of Israel), which came into existence in about the 930s BC after the northern Tribes of Israel rejected Solomon's son Rehoboam as their king. Nine landed tribes formed the Northern Kingdom: the tribes of Reuben, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali,Gad, Asher, Ephraim and Manasseh. In addition, some members of Tribe of Levi, who had no land allocation, were found in the Northern Kingdom. The Tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam, and formed the Kingdom of Judah (or Southern Kingdom). Members of Levi and the remnant of Simeon were also found in the Southern Kingdom.
    According to 2 Chronicles 15:9, members of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh and Simeon "fled" to Judah during the reign of Asa of Judah. Whether these groups were absorbed into the population or remained distinct groups, or returned to their tribal lands is not indicated.
    In c. 732 BC, the Assyrian king, Tiglath-Pileser III sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aramea[2] and territory of the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh in Gilead including the desert outposts of Jetur, Naphish and Nodab. People from these tribes including the Reubenite leader, were taken captive and resettled in the region of the Khabur River system in Assyria/Mesopotamia. Tiglath-Pilesar also captured the territory of Naphtali and the city of Janoah in Ephraim and an Assyrian governor was placed over the region of Naphtali. According to 2 Kings 16:9 and 15:29, the population of Aram and the annexed part of Israel was deported to Assyria.
    Israel continued to exist within the reduced territory as an independent kingdom subject to Assyria until around 720 BCE, when it was again invaded by Assyria and the rest of the population deported. The Bible relates that the population of Israel was exiled, leaving only the Tribe of Judah, the Tribe of Simeon (that was "absorbed" into Judah), the Tribe of Benjamin and the people of the Tribe of Levi who lived among them of the original Israelites tribes in the southern Kingdom of Judah. However, Israel Finkelstein estimated that only a fifth of the population (about 40,000) were actually resettled out of the area during the two deportation periods under Tiglath-Pileser III and his successor Sargon II.[3] Many also fled south to Jerusalem, which appears to have expanded in size fivefold during this period, requiring a new wall to be built, and a new source of water (Siloam) to be provided by King Hezekiah. Furthermore, 2 Chronicles 30:1-11 explicitly mentions northern Israelites who had been spared by the Assyrians in particular members of Dan, Ephraim, Manasseh, Asher and Zebulun and how members of the latter three returned to worship at the Temple in Jerusalem at that time.
    The Book of Tobit additionally records that Sargon had taken other captives from the northern kingdom to the Assyrian capital of Nineveh, in particular Tobit from the town of Tishbe in Naphtali.
    The Jewish tradition held until modern times that all the population of the kingdom was deported by Assyria, never to be heard of again. They are considered the Ten Lost Tribes.
    Some evidence exists of a continuing identification in later centuries of individual Jews to the Lost Tribes. For example, in Luke 2:36 of the New Testament, an individual is identified with the tribe of Asher. In recent years many groups have claimed descent from these Lost Tribes, some of which have been upheld by Israel's rabbinic authorities.
    Definition
    The Hebrew Bible does not use the phrase "Ten Lost Tribes", leading some to question the actual number of tribes involved. However, 1 Kings 11:31 states that the kingdom would be taken from Solomon and give ten tribes to Jeroboam:
    And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces: for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee.
    —1 Kings 11:31
    But I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand, and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes.
    —1 Kings 11:35
    However, it is not clear which tribes should be counted as lost. Lost tribes are those that formed the northern Kingdom of Israel after the dissolution of the united Kingdom of Israel in c. 930 BC. The tribes of Reuben, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Ephraim, and Manasseh were parts of the northern kingdom, a total of nine.
    It has sometimes been said that the Tribe of Simeon was a part of the northern Kingdom of Israel and was therefore part of the "Ten Lost Tribes." However, the Tribe of Simeon was never located in the Northern Kingdom, but was located entirely within the land of Judah. (Joshua 19:1) In addition, the territory of the tribe of Benjamin was part of the kingdom of Judah at the time of the Babylonian Exile and after, and the tribe of Levi continued to serve in the Second Temple in Jerusalem after the Exile, making four tribes (Judah, Simeon, Benjamin and Levi) who were not actually "lost".
    Religious beliefs
    The concept of the "Ten Lost Tribes" originally began in a religious context, based on Biblical sources, not as an ethnological idea. Some scientists have researched the topic, and at various times some have made claims of empirical evidence of the Ten Lost Tribes. However, religious and scriptural sources remain the main sources of the belief that the Ten Lost Tribes have some continuing, though hidden, identity somewhere.
    There are numerous references in Biblical writings. In Ezekiel 37:16-17, the prophet is told to write on one stick (an ancient reference to scrolls) (quoted here in part) "For Judah..." and on the other (quoted here in part), "For Joseph..." (the main Lost Tribe). The prophet is then told that these two groups shall be someday reunited.
    Moreover, thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions: then take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel his companions: And join them one to another into one stick; and they shall become one in your hand.
    —Ezekiel 37:16-17, HE
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has extensive teachings regarding the gathering of Israel and the restoration of the ten tribes. One of their main Articles of Faith written by Joseph Smith Jr. is as follows: "We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten Tribes; that Zion (the New Jerusalem) will be built upon the American continent; that Christ will reign personally upon the earth; and, that the earth will be renewed and receive its paradisiacal glory." (LDS Articles of Faith #10)
    Regarding the Ezekiel 37 prophecy, the official teaching of the LDS Church is that the Book of Mormon is the stick of Ephraim mentioned and that the Bible is the stick of Judah, thus comprising two witnesses for Jesus Christ. The Book of Mormon is purported to be an ancient record written on plates made of gold by descendants of Joseph, and translated by Joseph Smith Jr. circa 1830. The LDS Church considers the Book of Mormon one of the main tools for the spiritual gathering of Israel.
    There are also discussions in the Talmud as to whether the Ten Lost Tribes will eventually be reunited with the Tribe of Judah, that is, with the Jewish people.
    Lost tribes
    17th- to mid-20th-century theories
    Since at least the 17th century both Jews and Christians have proposed theories concerning the Lost Tribes, based to varying degrees on Biblical accounts. An Ashkenazi Jewish tradition speaks of these tribes as Die Roite Yiddelech, "The little red Jews", cut off from the rest of Jewry by the legendary river Sambation "whose foaming waters raise high up into the sky a wall of fire and smoke that is impossible to pass through".[4]
    The Portuguese traveller Antonio de Montezinos brought back reports that some of the Lost Tribes were living among the Native Americans of the Andes in South America. In response to this, Menasseh ben Israel, a noted rabbi of Amsterdam, wrote on December 23, 1649:
    ... I think that the Ten Tribes live not only there ... but also in other lands scattered everywhere; these never did come back to the Second Temple and they keep till this day still the Jewish Religion...[5]
    Menasseh actually published in Spanish and in Latin in 1649 in Amsterdam a book about Montezinos' narrative. An English translation of it with the title The Hope of Israel was also published in London in 1650. In it Menasseh argued, and for the first time tried to give scholarly support in European thought and printing, to the theory that the native inhabitants of America at the time of the European discovery were actually descendants of the [lost] Ten Tribes of Israel.[6]
    In 1655, Menasseh ben Israel petitioned Oliver Cromwell to allow the Jews to return to England. (Since the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, Jews had been prohibited by law from living in England.) One of the reasons for Cromwell's alleged interest in the return of the Jews to England was the abundance at the time of theories relating to the end of the world. Many of these ideas were fixed upon the year 1666 and the Fifth Monarchy Men who were looking for the return of Jesus as the Messiah who would establish a final kingdom to rule the physical world for a thousand years. They supported Cromwell's Republic in the expectation that it was a preparation for the fifth monarchy - that is, the monarchy that should succeed the Babylonia, the Persian, theGreek, and Roman world empires.[citation needed]
    Mixed in with all of this was a background of general belief that the Lost Ten Tribes did not represent ethnic Jews who partially formed the ancient Kingdom of Judah, but tribes who maintained a separate capital at Samaria. Some have attempted to dismiss this complicated saga by stating that it is nothing but Supersessionism. However, the ideas behind these various competing theories are far more complicated, especially when Sabbatai Zevi, the "messiah" claimant and his supporters postulated that he represented groups in addition to those identified as being Jews. However, Zevi lost his credibility to all but the Donmeh when he converted to Islam and became an apostate to Judaism in 1666.[citation needed]
    During the latter half of the 18th century, variations on this same theory were advocated by some who believed that the British Empire of nations was a manifestation of ancient prophecies recorded in the Book of Genesis predating both the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah.[citation needed]
    Others believe that the Lost Tribes simply merged with the local population. For instance, the New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia states "In historic fact, some members of the Ten Tribes remained in Palestine, where apart from the Samaritans some of their descendants long preserved their identity among the Jewish population, others were assimilated, while others were presumably absorbed by the last Judean exiles who in 597-586 BC were deported to Assyria...Unlike the Judeans of the southern Kingdom, who survived a similar fate 135 years later, they soon assimilated..."[7][8]
    Samaritans
    All Samaritans, in one form or another, see themselves as descendants of the original Hebrews. The Samaritan community in Israel and the Palestinian territories numbers about 600. These people, who still struggle to keep their ancient traditions, live in what was the capital of Samaria - Nablus and the town of Holon. They claim to be authentic descendants of the Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh that were not exiled.[citation needed]*
    Africa
    Beta Israel of Ethiopia
    Main article: Beta Israel
    The Beta Israel (also known derogatorily as Falashas) are Ethiopian Jews. Some members of the Beta Israel as well as several Jewish scholars believe that they are descended from the lost Tribe of Dan, as opposed to the traditional story of their descent from the Queen of Sheba.
    Igbo Jews
    Main article: Igbo Jews
    The Igbo Jews of Nigeria claim descent variously from the tribes of Ephraim, Naphtali, Menasseh, Levi, Zebulun and Gad.
    Yoruba
    Main article: Oyo Empire
    According to recent research based on the dynastic tradition of the Oyo-Yoruba, the ancient kings mentioned in this tradition are Israelite, Assyrian and Babylonian rulers. The deportation of the Ten Lost Tribes is remembered in the tradition preserved by the palace bards of Oyo as the Igboho exile.[9]
    Lemba
    Main article: Lemba people
    The Lemba people (Vhalemba) from Southern Africa claim to be descendants of a lost tribe that fled from what is now Yemen and journeyed south.[10][11][12] DNA testing has genetically linked the Lemba with modern Jews.[13][14] They have specific religious practices similar to those in Judaism and a tradition of being a migrant people with clues pointing to an origin in West Asia orNorth Africa. According to the oral history of the Lemba, their ancestors were Jews who came from a place called Sena several hundred years ago and settled in East Africa. Sena is an abandoned ancient town in Yemen, located in the eastern Hadramaut valley, which history indicates Jews inhabited in past centuries. Some research suggests that "Sena" may refer to Wadi Masilah(near Sayhut) in Yemen, often called Sena, or alternatively to the city of Sana'a, also located in Yemen.[13]
    Other ethnic groups
    Some groups believe that they are descended from one of the Lost Tribes, but don't know which one. These include:
    • The House of Israel in Ghana.
    • The Bakwa Dishi of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Iran
    Persian Jews
    Main article: Persian Jews
    Persian Jews claim descent from the Tribe of Ephraim. Persian Jews (also called Iranian Jews) are members of Jewish communities living in Iran and throughout the former greatest extent of the Persian Empire.
    Pashtuns of the Afghanistan and Pakistan region
    Main article: Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites
    The Pashtuns are a predominantly Muslim people, native to Afghanistan and Pakistan, who adhere to their pre-Islamic indigenous religious code of honor and culture Pashtunwali. They started claiming descent from the Lost Tribes in 19th and 20th centuries.
    Written sources
    A book that corresponds to Pashtun historical records, Taaqati-Nasiri, states that in the 7th century a people called the Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat, Afghanistan, and then migrated south and east. These Bani Israel references are in line with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed, the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the region.[15] Hence the tribal name 'Yusef Zai' in Pashto translates to the 'sons of Joseph'. This is also described extensively in great detail by Makhzan-i-Afghani, a historical work from the 17th Century by Nehamtullah, an official in the royal court of Mughal Emperor Jehangir. A similar story is told by Iranian historian Ferishta.[16]
    This account is also substantiated by the fact that the Bnei Menashe of India also have traditions that trace their wanderings as going originally from the Persian Empire to Afghanistan. In their case, they then went to China, then pressed on to India and Southern Asia.[17]
    The Bani-Israelite theory about the origin of the Pashtun is based on Pashtun traditions; the tradition itself is documented in a source titled Makhzan-i-Afghani, the only written source addressing Pashtun origins. It was written in 1612, by Nematullah Harvi, a scribe at the court of Mughal Emperor Jehangir of Mughal Empire. Nematullah compiled his book on the order of Khan Jehan Lodhi of the Lodhi dynasty, a Pashtun noble and a courtier of the Emperor Jehangir.[18]
    Some sources state that the Makhzan-i-Afghani has been discredited by historical and linguistic inconsistencies. The oral tradition is believed to be a myth that grew out of a political and cultural struggle between Pashtuns and the Mughals, which explains the historical backdrop for the creation of the myth, the inconsistencies of the mythology, and the linguistic research that refutes any Semitic origins.[18] Other sources disagree strongly with the hypothesis that the Pashtuns have Israelite origins.[19]
    Pashtun traditions
    The Yousafzai (Yusafzai) are a large group of Pashtun tribes. Their name means "Sons of Joseph".[20] There are also similar names in other areas of the region, such as the disputed land of Kashmir. There are a variety of cultural and ethnic similarities between Jews and Pashtuns.[21][22] A visit by a Western journalist in 2007 suggested that many currently active Pashtun traditions may have parallels with Jewish traditions.[23]
    Central Asia
    Bukharian Jews
    Main article: Bukharian Jews
    It has been suggested that the Bukharian Jews are related to the Tribe of Issachar because a common surname among them is Issacharoff.[24]
    India
    Main article: History of the Jews in India
    Bene Ephraim of South India
    The Bene Ephraim claim descent from the Tribe of Ephraim
    Nasranis of Kerala (ancient Malabar), India
    Main article: Cochin Jews
    The Nasranis of Kerala, India, are of Hebrew or Israelite heritage but not much is known of their past, making it difficult to be certain that they are also descended from the 'Lost Tribes'. (Ref. Dr. Asahel Grant's 'The Nestorians or the Lost Tribes of Israel' for more about the Nazarenes and Nestorians). However, recent DNA analysis results suggest significant Middle Eastern / Israelite components among the Nasranis, also known as Mar Thoma (St. Thomas) Syrian (Syriac) Christians, of Kerala (ancient Malabar).[25] Dr. Avigdor Shachan, in his book 'In the Footsteps of the Lost Ten Tribes' (translated from the Hebrew, Devora Publishing, Jeusalem, New York) refers to this ancient Christian community and their faith as follows: "One could label the Christianity which Thomas introduced in Taxila, Malabar and other Israelite communities in central Asia and along the eastern and western coasts of India, "Israelite Christianity", an offshoot of the Jewish religion, for the language, culture, ritual and spirit that prevailed in this ancient church until the western missionaries arrived was a hybrid of Aramaic-Syrian-Eretz Israel and Eastern..." Another theory is that the Middle Eastern DNA found is from traveling Assyrian Nestorian missionaries who were undoubtedly responsible for bringing Christianity to Kerala.[citation needed]. This view, however, is contrary to the generally accepted fact of the missionary work of Apostle Thomas in South-West India (ancient Malabar Coast) in the first century AD; Dr. Avigdor Shachan too refers to this fact in stating "One could label the Christianity which Thomas introduced in Taxila, Malabar and other Israelite communities in central Asia and along the eastern and western coasts of India, "Israelite Christianity", an offshoot of the Jewish religion..."
    Bene Israel of India
    The Bene Israel (Hebrew: "Sons of Israel") are a group of Jews who live in various Indian cities, Mumbai, Pune, Ahmedabad. Prior to their waves of emigration to Israel and still to this day, the Bene Israel form the largest sector of the subcontinent's Jewish population, and constitute the bulk of those sometimes referred to as Pakistani Jews. The native language of the Bene Israel is Judæo-Marathi, a form of Marathi. Most Bene Israel have now emigrated to Israel.
    In 2010, Amir Mizroch in the Jerusalem Post referred to the theory that even Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan could be descending from the lost tribe of Efraim. Shahnaz Ali, a senior research fellow at the Indian National Institute of Immunohematology in Mumbai, has started studying the blood samples that she collected from Afridi Pathans in Malihabad, in the Lucknowdistrict in Uttar Pradesh, India, to check their putative Israelite origin.[26][27][28][29]
    Bnei Menashe of India
    Main article: Bnei Menashe
    The Bnei Menashe (from northeast India) claim descent from the lost Tribe of Manasseh. Their oral traditions depict them as originally going from the Persian Empire into Afghanistan. (They may have been in the Persian Empire because it occupied the lands of Assyria when it conquered Babylonia.) According to their traditions, they then went to China, where they encountered persecution, then pressed on to India and Southern Asia.[17] DNA tests to determine whether or not they originate from the Middle East has yielded mixed results.The Israeli government has recognized them as one of the lost tribes and made them eligible for immigration under the Law of Return.
    China
    Kaifeng Jews
    Main article: Kaifeng Jews
    According to some historical sources, a Jewish community has existed in Kaifeng, China from medieval times until the present day.[30] In 2009, Chinese Jews from Kaifeng arrived in Israel as immigrants.[31]
    According to historical records, a Jewish community with a synagogue built in 1163 existed at Kaifeng from at least the Southern Song Dynasty until the late nineteenth century. A stone monument in the city suggests that they were there since at least 231 BC.
    Speculation regarding other ethnic groups
    Scythian / Cimmerian Theories
    Several theories claim that the Scythians and/or Cimmerians were in whole or in part the Lost Tribes of Israel. The theories are generally based on the belief that the Northern Kingdom of Israel, which had been deported by the Assyrians, became known in history as the Scythians and/or Cimmerians. Various points of view exist as to which modern nations these people became.
    The Behistun Inscription is often cited as a link between the deported Israelites, the Cimmerians and the Scythians (Saka).

    George Rawlinson wrote:
    We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, or Cimmerians, who first appeared on the confines of Assyria and Media in the seventh century B.C., and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock, nearly two centuries later, as identical with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel.[32]
    Adherents point out that the Behistun Inscription connects the people known in Old Persian and Elamite as Saka, Sacae or Scythian with the people known in Babylonian as Gimirri or Cimmerian.
    It should be made clear from the start that the terms 'Cimmerian' and 'Scythian' were interchangeable: in Akkadian the name Iskuzai (Asguzai) occurs only exceptionally. Gimirrai (Gamir) was the normal designation for 'Cimmerians' as well as 'Scythians' in Akkadian.[33]
    The British Israelite E. Raymond Capt claimed similarities between King Jehu's pointed headdress and that of the captive Saka king seen to the far right on the Behistun Inscription.[34] He also posited that the Assyrian word for the House of Israel, "Khumri", which was named after Israel's King Omri of the 8th century BC, is connected phonetically to "Gimirri"[34] (Cimmerian).
    Critics of the Israel / Scythian theory argue that the customs of the Scythians and Cimmerians differ from those of the Ancient Israelites[35][36] and that the similarities and theories proposed by adherents stand in contradiction to the greater body of research on the history of ancient populations, which does not provide support for the purported links between these ancient populations.[37]
    British Israelism variant
    Main article: British Israelism
    British Israelism (also known as 'Anglo-Israelism') is the theory that people of Western European descent, especially Britain and the United States, are descended from the lost tribes of Israel. Adherents argue that the deported Israelites became Scythians / Cimmerians who are ancestors of the Celts / Anglo-Saxons of Western Europe.[38] The theory arose in England, whence it spread to the United States.[39] During the 20th Century, British Israelism was promoted by Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God.[40] Armstrong argued that this theory provided a 'key' to understanding biblical prophecy, and that he was called to proclaim these prophecies to the 'lost tribes' of Israel before the coming of the 'end-times'.[41] TheWorldwide Church of God no longer teaches the theory,[42] but some offshoot churches such as the Philadelphia Church of God, the United Church of God, and the Living Church of God continue to teach it even though British Israelism is inconsistent with the findings of modern genetics.
    Brit-Am variant
    Brit-Am, sometimes confused with British Israelism, is an organization centered in Jerusalem, and composed of Jews and non-Jews. Brit-Am, like British Israel, identifies the Lost Ten Tribes with peoples of West European descent, but does so from a Jewish perspective quoting both Biblical and Rabbinical sources. The evidence that Brit-Am relies upon is Biblical in the light of Rabbinical Commentary but is supplemented by secular theories that posit the Lost Tribes / Scythian / Cimmerian connection, which they then believe to have become various Western European nations.[43] An example of Brit-Am scholarship may be seen from its treatment of Obadiah 1:20[44] where the original Hebrew as understood by Rabbinical Commentators such as Rashi and Abarbanel is referring to the Lost Ten Tribes in France and England.[45] Brit-Am also believes that "Other Israelite Tribes gave rise to elements within Finland, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Wales, France, Holland, and Belgium" and that "The Tribe of Dan is to be found amongst part of the Danish, Irish, and Welsh." Brit-Am also believes that the Khazars were descended from the Ten Tribes and quotes Jewish and non-Jewish sources that were contemporaneous with them.[46]
    Other variants
    Other organizations teach other variants of the theory, such as that the Scythians / Cimmerians represented in whole or in part the Lost Ten Tribes. One such theory posits that the lost Israelites can be defined by the Y-DNA haplogroup R, which consists of much of Europe and Russia,[47] which is in contrast to British Israelism and Brit-Am, which believe the Israelites became only Western Europeans. It should be noted that the genetic findings postulated by this and other theories are typically inconsistent with the findings of generally accepted research in archeology, anthropology and population genetics.
    Kurds
    Main article: Genetic origins of the Kurds
    Some have promoted the notion that the Kurds represent a Lost Tribe. Some claims have been made regarding a genetic relationship between the Kurds and the Jews on the basis of a similarity between Kurdish Y-DNA and a Y haplotype that is associated with the Jewish priesthood. However, in genetic testing of the Y chromosome of 95 Muslim Kurds, only one sample (1.05% of the Kurds tested) matched the so-called Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH), consisting of six specific Y-STR values.[48]
    Various misleading statements have associated typical Kurdish Y-DNA with that of the Jews. However, these attempts are based on several sources of confusion:
    • The Cohen Modal Haplotype in its original form includes only six Y-STR markers, which with the scientific advances since that time, are now understood to be far too few to adequately identify a unique, closely related group that shares common descent from one relatively recent paternal ancestor. The same six marker values can be found by random mutations in other populations that are only remotely related. They are thus identical by state, but not identical by descent. The 6-marker CMH cannot be used as a clear indicator of Cohen genetic ancestry, without additional data. Thus its presence should not be used as grounds for probable Jewish ancestry in a population.
    • It is touted as a fact of great significance that the most common (modal) 6-marker haplotype of the Kurds is only one step from the CMH, but in fact, these same six marker values that were found to be the "Kurdish modal haplotype" can be seen in the data, in numerous sources, to be the most common haplotype amongst a wide variety of J2 Y chromosomes, wherever they may be found, in ethnic groups of the Middle East or in Europe[49][50] -- thus, it is hardly an indication of a close relationship with the Cohanim priesthood, or with the Jews.
    • The fact that the 2001 paper by Nebel found a somewhat greater similarity between the Y-DNA of the Kurds and the Jews than between the Jews and the Palestinians does not point to a uniquely close relationship between the Jews and the Kurds. This study did not compare Jews with other non-Kurdish Iraqis, or with the people of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, or other nearby lands. The available data indicates that these peoples are all closely related, with the Jews and Kurds making up just two per cent of a diverse family of Middle Eastern peoples in this region.
    Japanese
    Main article: Japanese-Jewish Common Ancestor Theory
    Some writers have speculated that the Japanese people themselves may be direct descendants of part of the Ten Lost Tribes. There are some parallels between Japanese and Israelite rituals, culture, traditions, and language, which provide some evidence for this possibility.[51] [52] An article that has been widely circulated and published, entitled "Mystery of the Ten Lost Tribes: Japan" by Arimasa Kubo[53] (a Japanese writer living in Japan who studied the Hebrew Bible), concludes that many traditional customs and ceremonies in Japan are very similar to the ones of ancient Israel and that perhaps these rituals came from the religion and customs of the Jews and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel who might have come to ancient Japan.
    Joseph Eidelberg's "The Biblical Hebrew Origin of the Japanese People" makes a similar case:
    Late in his life, Joseph Eidelberg began analyzing ancient traditions, religious ceremonies, historical names, haiku poems, Kana writings and Japanese folk songs, discovering thousands of words with similar pronunciations, sounds and translations between Hebrew and Japanese. These discoveries are history in the making, giving credible new information on the meanings of many unknown Japanese words, numbers, songs and cultural traditions – and this book is the first time that these remarkable similarities are combined into a single consistent theory.[54]
    Irish
    There is a theory that the Irish, or that Insular Celts as a whole, are descended from the Ten Lost Tribes. Proponents of this theory state that there is evidence that the prophet Jeremiah came to Ireland with Princess Tea Tephi, a member of the Israelite royal family.[55] Proponents of this theory point to various parallels between Irish and ancient Hebrew culture. For example, they note that the harp, the symbol of Ireland, also plays a role in Jewish history, as the musical instrument of King David. Some maintain that the Tribe of Dan conducted sea voyages to Ireland and colonized it as early as the period of the Judges under the name Tuatha Dé Danann.
    Aspects of this theory are also sometimes cited by adherents of British Israelism, as one possible explanation of how the Ten Lost Tribes might have reached the British Isles. However, British Israelism takes many forms, and does not always use this hypothesis as its main narrative.[56][57]
    American Indians
    Several explorers, especially during the 17th and 18th centuries, claimed to have collected evidence that some of the American Indian tribes might be descended from the Ten Lost Tribes. Several recent books and articles have focused on these theories.[58][59][60]
    The belief that some American Indians were a Lost tribe of Israel goes back centuries and includes individuals like the 1782 President of the Continental Congress Elias Boudinot[61][62] and Mordecai Noah, the most influential Jew in the United States in the early 19th Century.[63][64]
    The Book of Mormon, one of the religious texts of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), claims that early residents of the Americas included descendants of the tribe of Joseph, particularly through Manasseh.
    Some sources such as Howshua Amariel and various researchers assert that DNA evidence, linguistic research, and other research indicates links between the Cherokee Nation and the Jewish people.[65][66][67][68]
    General dispersions, via Media region
    This theory begins with the notion that the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh are the sons of Joseph, who had been in captivity (Genesis 37 through 45) and bore them with the daughter of the Pharaoh's Priest, Asenath (Genesis 41:45-52). The Tribe of Levi was set apart to serve in the Holy Temple (Numbers 1:47-54 2:33 3:6-7). The arrangement of the Tribes was given in Numbers 2.
    There is also Biblical and Talmudic testimony that much of the population of the "lost" tribes was simply reunited with the rest of the Israelites when they, too, were exiled and, later, returned to the Land of Israel. However, many over the years, to hide their Jewish or Israelite identities during tribulations, crusades, and continual exiles, have scattered around the whole earth and are believed to have assimilated into the much larger non-Jewish population.
    Genetic testing is being conducted on representatives of at least two groups, the Lemba in Africa and the Bnei Menashe in India, in attempts to verify claims of descent from the "lost ten tribes". So far, there is nothing conclusive, though in the case of the Lemba, there is a definite link[69] to Levite Hebrew ancestry, specifically Kohen.
    Nathan Ausubel
    Nathan Ausubel wrote:
    There are quite a number of peoples today who cling to the ancient tradition that they are descended from the Jewish Lost Tribes: the tribesmen of Afghanistan, the Mohammedan Berbers of West Africa, and the six million Christian Igbo people of Nigeria. Unquestionably, they all practice certain ancient Hebraic customs and beliefs, which lends some credibility to their fantastic-sounding claims.[70][importance?]
    Other traditions
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    Main article: Mormon view of the House of Joseph
    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believes in the literal gathering of Israel, and the LDS Church is actively gathering people from the twelve tribes.
    See also
    • Schisms among the Jews describes some of the early background to the split between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
    • The Shavei Israel organization seeks to find "lost Jews."
    • Assyria destroyed the Kingdom of Israel and caused the Ten Tribes "to become lost."
    • Babylonia and Assyria were global powers that confronted the Israelites in ancient times.
    • The Babylonian captivity was inflicted by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon.
    • Jewish diaspora
    • Timeline of Jewish history
    • History of the Jews in China
    • History of the Jews in India
    • Abrahamic religions - deals with Judaism, Christianity and Islam and a few other faiths
    • Richard Reader Harris wrote The Lost Tribes of Israel in 1908 and was a major promoter of British Israelism, the belief that people of Western European descent are also the direct lineal descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes
    • Joseph Wolff - the so-called "Eccentric Missionary", the son of a rabbi who converted to Christianity, who in 1828 set off on extensive travels through Asia in search of the Ten Tribes
    • United States in Prophecy
    • Assyria and Germany in Anglo-Israelism
    [show]
    • v
    • d
    • e
    The Biblical and Historical Israelites
    Bibliography
    • Bruder, Édith: Black Jews of Africa, Oxford 2008.
    • Lange, Dierk: "Yoruba origins and the 'Lost Tribes of Israel'", Anthropos 106 (2011), 579-595.
    • Parfitt, Tudor: The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth, London 2002.
    • Weil, Shalva: Beyond the Sabatyon: the Myth of the Ten Tribes, Tel Aviv 1991.
    References and notes
    Footnotes
    1. ^ Lost Tribes of Israel program on NOVA, Original broadcast date: 02/22/2000
    2. ^ Lester L. Grabbe, Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? (New York: T&T Clark, 2007): 134
    3. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, The Bible Unearthed.
    4. ^ Moses Rosen. "The Recipe" (published as epilogue to The Face of Survival, 1987).
    5. ^ Moses Rosen. "The Recipe" (published as epilogue to The Face of Survival, 1987). Nathan Ausubel. Pictorial History of the Jewish People, Crown, 1953.
    6. ^ Méchoulan, Henry, and Nahon, Gérard (eds.), Menasseh Ben Israel. The Hope of Israel, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987 - ISBN 0-19710054-6, p. 101 and passim.
    7. ^ The Lost Tribes of Israel as a Problem in History and Sociology, Stanford M Lyman, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Volume 12, Number 1 / September, 1998
    8. ^ Part of this article and a similar article can be read online at Roads to Dystopia
    9. ^ Lange "Yoruba origins and the 'Lost Tribes of Israel'", Anthropos 106 (2011), 579-595.
    10. ^ Transcript, INSIDE AFRICA: Current Events on the African Continent, CNN, September 11, 2004.
    11. ^ The Lemba, The Black Jews of Southern Africa, NOVA episode, PBS.
    12. ^ The Story of the Lemba People by Dr. Rudo Mathivha, 15th October 1999.
    13. a b Tudor Parfitt's Remarkable Journey Part 2, NOVA, PBS website.
    14. ^ Lemba of South African Jews, - San Diego Jewish Journal March 2004.
    15. ^ Afghanistan, The Virtual Jewish History Tour (retrieved 10 January 2007).
    16. ^ Introduction: Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, History Of The Mohamedan Power In India, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation (retrieved 10 January 2007).
    17. a b Bnei Menashe.com History page, A Long-Lost Tribe is Ready to Come Home, by Stephen Epstein, 1997, accessed 4/23/07.
    18. a b Bani-Israelite Theory of Paktoons Ethnic Origin Afghanology.com (retrieved 10 January 2007).
    19. ^ Afghanistan and Israel, britam.org
    20. ^ Mystery of the Ten Lost Tribes - Afghanistan, by Rabbi Marvin Tokayer,moshiach.com website
    21. ^ The Israeli Source of the Pathan Tribes, from the book, Lost Tribes from Assyria, by A Avihail and A Brin, 1978, in Hebrew by Issachar Katzir, at dangoor.com, website of The Scribe Magazine.
    22. ^ Tribal groups, NOVA episode, PBS.
    23. ^ Is One of the Lost Tribes the Taliban?, by Ilene Prusher, Moment Magazine, April 2007.
    24. ^ Ehrlich, M. Avrum Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture ABL-CIO October 2008 ISBN 978-1-85109-873-6 p.84 [1]
    25. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/public/SyrianChristiansOfIndia/default.aspx
    26. ^ Amir Mizroch (2010-01-09). "Are Taliban descendants of Israelites?". The Jerusalem Post.
    27. ^ "Israelites fund scholarship to study DNA link to Taliban"
    28. ^ Sachin Parashar (2010-01-11). "Lucknow Pathans have Jewish roots?". Times of India.
    29. ^ Rory McCarthy (2010-01-17). "Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel". The Observer.
    30. ^ The Lost Jews of Kaifeng
    31. ^ http://wn.com/chinese_jews_from_kaifeng_arrive_in_israel_2009__a_moving_documentary
    32. ^ George Rawlinson, noted in his translation of History of Herodotus, Book VII, p. 378
    33. ^ Maurits Nanning Van Loon. "Urartian Art. Its Distinctive Traits in the Light of New Excavations", Istanbul, 1966. p. 16
    34. a b E. Raymond Capt, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets Artisan Pub, 1985 ISBN 0-934666-15-6
    35. ^ (Greer, 2004. p57-60)Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 55.
    36. ^ Dimont, C (1933). The Legend of British-Israel.
    37. ^ (Greer, 2004. p57-60)Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 62.
    38. ^ "The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy". Retrieved 2009-01-14.
    39. ^ Parfitt, T: The Lost Tribes of Israel: The history of a myth, London, 2002, p. 52-65.
    40. ^ Parfitt, T: The Lost Tribes of Israel: The history of a myth, London, 2002, p. 57.
    41. ^ [2] Orr, R: "How Anglo-Israelism Entered Seventh-day Churches of God: A history of the doctrine from John Wilson to Joseph W.Tkach."
    42. ^ [3] "Transformed by Christ: A Brief History of the Worldwide Church of God"
    43. ^ Davidiy, Yair (1996). "The Cimmerians, Scythians, and Israel". Retrieved 2009-02-04.
    44. ^ Brit-Am Commentary by Yair Davidiy, britam website, accessed 10/3/08.
    45. ^ Biblical Locations of the Lost Ten Tribes: Scriptural Proof, by Yair Davidiy, britam website, accessed 7/15/08.
    46. ^ The Khazars and the Scottish, by Yair Davidiy, britam website, accessed 10/3/08.
    47. ^ Hanok. "Israelite and Noahic Haplogroup Hypotheses". Retrieved 2009-02-04.
    48. ^ Almut Nebel et al., The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:1095–1112, 2001
    49. ^ Cinnioglu et al., Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148
    50. ^ Di Giacomo et al., Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe, Hum Genet (2004) 115: 357–371
    51. ^ Kubo, Arimasa. Israelites Came to Ancient Japan., chapters: 2 3 4
    52. ^ Japan article, Nova episode: Lost tribes of Israel, PBS website.
    53. ^ Israelites Came To Ancient Japan , Arimasa Kubo.
    54. ^ isralbooks.com listing
    55. ^ Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright by J.H. Allen (the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel)
    56. ^ Lost Tribes article at BritAm.org
    57. ^ United States and Britain in Prophecy article at Trumpet Magazine website
    58. ^ Nova Episode: The Ten Lost Tribes, PBS.
    59. ^ The Myth of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, at bh.org.il
    60. ^ UNC Press web page for book Sacred Tongue: Hebrew and the American Imagination by Shalom L. Goldman 2004 by the University of North Carolina Press.
    61. ^ Elias Boudinot (1816, 2003). Star in the West Or a Humble Attempt to Discover the Long Lost Ten Tribes of Israel Preparatory to Their Return to Their Beloved City, Jerusalem. Kessinger Publishing. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
    62. ^ Amariel, Yeshiyah, Howshua. "Amariel Family Oral History". Amariel Family Publishing. Retrieved 2008-09-03. "Boudinot seems to have felt that the popular identification of the Indians as the lost Israelites would bring with it a widespread realization that the Bible and its prophecies were true"
    63. ^ Mordecai Manuel Noah. "DISCOURSE ON THE EVIDENCES OF THE AMERICAN INDIANS BEING THE DESCENDANTS OF THE LOST TRIBES OF ISRAEL". Oliver's Bookshelf. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
    64. ^ "Mordecai Manuel Noah". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-09-03. "Mordecai Manuel Noah was the most influential Jew in the United States in the early 19th Century."
    65. ^ Cohen, Aaron (2006-09-11). "Unique Translation of the Paleo-Hebrew Tanach". Retrieved 2008-09-15. "'For over 20 years I have used my knowledge of the ancient Hebrew language to identify the history of my people written in stone across the globe;' said Amariel, a Hispanic (Cherokee) Indian who is descended from a tribe that has been mentioned for centuries in the Americas by European historians (both Jews and non-Jews) as a potential lost tribe of Israel"
    66. ^ Frenkel, Sheera Clair (2005-02-16). "A headdress of many colors. Would-be Black Hebrew traces 'Jewish heritage' via Cherokee roots". The Jerusalem Post: p. 05. Retrieved 2008-09-08. "[Amariel] translates ancient Hebrew into English"
    67. ^ Amariel, Yeshiyah, Howshua. "Amariel Family Oral History". Amariel Family Publishing. p. 7. Retrieved 2008-09-03. "returning a pure language unto our people (Zep: 3:9) for the purpose to demonstrate that we are the ancient ones (children of Israel)."
    68. ^ Belman, Ted (2008-08-02). "Missouri Cherokee Tribes proclaim Jewish Heritage". Retrieved 2008-09-03.
    69. ^ www.aish.com
    70. ^ cited on p. 217, Pictorial History of the Jewish People by Nathan Ausubel, Crown, 1953
    Notations
    • Michael Riff. The Face of Survival: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe Past and Present. Valentine Mitchell, London, 1992. ISBN 0-85303-220-3
    External links
    • Biblical History The Jewish History Resource Center — Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    • Database of Jewish communities at Beit Hatefutsot in Tel Aviv. - Overview of many hypotheses about the Ten Lost Tribes.
    • Brit Am Israel
    • Christian, Messianic, and Jewish research on the Ten Lost Tribes
    • The Lost Ten Tribes, and 1882 by Joseph Wild
    • Kulanu ("All of us")
    • Bnei Menashe Website
    • Afghanistan: Home to Lost Tribes of Israel?
    • What happened to the 10 lost tribes? video feature direct from Jerusalem
    • Imperial British-Israelism: Justification for an Empire. (1987) by Gregory S. Neal
    • British Israelism by Gary A. Hand
    • The Lemba People by Haruth.com
    • United Israel Lost Tribes Research
    • Kol haTor Promoting Reconciliation between Returning 10 Tribes and Judah
    • Bible Revelations Library of studies on the Return of the Lost 10 Tribes
    • Anglo-Israel The History of the Ten "Lost" Tribes by David Baron, "intended primarily as a thorough examination and debunking of Anglo-Israelism"
    • British-Israel basics


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